With two-thirds of the world’s cross-border pipeline infrastructure traversing Europe, and the European Union (EU) importing over 50 percent of the energy it consumes, Europe is a unique place to observe energy consumption, production, and policy. A long history of conflict and dependence on foreign energy has led the EU towards a new energy focus, which includes reforming trade agreements, strengthening partnerships, and exploring renewables. Energy itself tends to be a critical tool throughout Europe as a mechanism to achieve foreign policy goals.Examples of policy using energy can be proactive or reactive and involve both economic and political motivations.

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